Australia Geography Definition

Oceania is a region made up of thousands of islands in the Central and South Pacific. It includes Australia, the smallest continent in terms of total area. Most of Australia and Oceania lies beneath the Pacific, a vast body of water larger than all the land masses and islands of the Earth combined. The name “Oceania” rightly establishes the Pacific Ocean as the defining feature of the continent. Oceania is dominated by the nation of Australia. The other two major land masses of Oceania are the microcontinent Zealandia, which includes the country of New Zealand, and the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, which consists of the nation of Papua New Guinea. Oceania also includes three island regions: Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia (including the United States). State of Hawaii). The physical geography, environment and resources of Oceania, as well as human geography can be considered separately. Oceania can be divided into three archipelagos: the mainland islands, the high islands and the low islands. The islands of each group are shaped in different ways and are made of different materials.

Mainland islands have a variety of physical characteristics, while high and low islands are fairly uniform in their physical geography. Mainland islands were once connected to continents before changes in sea level and tectonic activity isolated them. Tectonic activity refers to the movement and collision of different sections or plates of the Earth`s crust. Australia, Zeeland and New Guinea are mainland islands. These three regions have certain physical characteristics in common. All three have mountain ranges or highlands – the Great Dividing Range in Australia; the volcanic plateau of the North Island and the Southern Alps in New Zealand; and the highlands of New Guinea in Papua New Guinea. These highlands are folding mountains formed in the form of tectonic plates that have been compressed and the earth pushed upwards. New Zealand and Papua New Guinea also have volcanic features due to tectonic activity. Although they share some landscape features, each of these regions has different physical characteristics resulting from different environmental processes. The Australian landscape is dominated by the outback, a region of deserts and semi-arid lands. The outback is the result of the continent`s great interior plains, its location along the dry Tropic of Capricorn, and its proximity to cool, dry winds from the south. New Zealand`s glaciers are the result of the islands` altitude and proximity to cool winds and moisture retention.

The tropical rainforests of papua New Guinea`s highlands are the result of the island`s altitude, proximity to moisture-resistant tropical winds, and location just below the warm equator. High IslandsHigh islands, also known as volcanic islands, form when volcanic eruptions accumulate land over time. These eruptions begin underwater when the hot magma is cooled and hardened by the ocean. Over time, this activity creates islands with a steep central peak – hence the name “high island”. Ridges and valleys radiate from the summit outwards to the coast. The island region of Melanesia contains many high islands as it is an important part of the “Ring of Fire”, a series of volcanoes along the border of the Pacific Ocean. This part of the Ring of Fire is located on the border of the Pacific Plate and the Australian Plate. This is a converging plate boundary where the two plates move towards each other. Important volcanic mountains in Melanesia are Mount Tomanivi, Fiji; Mount Lamington, Papua New Guinea; and Mount Yasur, Vanuatu.Low IslandsLower islands are also called coral islands. They consist of skeletons and living bodies of small marine animals called corals. Sometimes coral islands barely reach sea level – hence the name “low island”.

The lower islands often take the form of an irregular ring of very small islands, a so-called atoll that surrounds a lagoon. An atoll is formed when a coral reef is built around a volcanic island, and then the volcanic island erodes, leaving behind a lagoon. Atolls are defined as a single island, although they consist of several coral communities. The island regions of Micronesia and Polynesia are dominated by low islands. Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands, for example, consists of 97 islands and islets that surround one of the world`s largest lagoons with an area of 2,173 square kilometers (839 square miles). The nation of Kiribati consists of 32 atolls and a desert island spread over 3.5 million square kilometers (1.35 million square miles) of the Pacific Ocean. Australia`s geography encompasses a variety of biogeographical regions that are the smallest continent in the world, while encompassing the territory of the sixth largest country in the world. Australia`s population is concentrated along the east and southeast coasts. The continent`s geography is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests, grasslands, moors and forests. There are up to four hundred different groups of aborigines currently in Australia, representing a total population of about four hundred and fifty thousand. This is a small percentage of Australia`s population, but it affects much of the country`s physical zone. Their land claims include the entire Northern Territory, much of Western Australia, and parts of South Australia and Queensland.

This is in addition to the demands that are located in many urban areas, such as Sydney`s largest city. Mining on indigenous lands has been heavily regulated. There are fears that Australia`s extractive industries will decline, leading to a decline in the economy. Concern for the Aboriginal population has increased in recent decades and the government has sought to communicate its political and economic problems and strengthen programs aimed at their social well-being. The Australian landmass consists of six divisions of different relief. [8] This is Australia which has a strong economy due to its vast natural resources, well-developed industry and tourism. Sport is an important part of Australian culture, perhaps due to a climate that allows for year-round outdoor activities. About a quarter of the population is active in some kind of organized sports team. Football (football) is popular, as is the case in most European countries, and rugby and cricket are also popular. The most popular spectator sport in Australia is Australian rules football, also known as Australian rules football or simply “footy”. This unique Australian game has codified rules dating back to 1858 and is a variant of football and rugby. Other forms of entertainment include television, film, and live shows of all kinds.

Although Australia has a number of its own television channels, there are fears that popular culture will be dominated by American influences. Australia`s major cities have extensive arts programs. Sydney is becoming a hub for world-class performances in the fields of dance, opera, music and theatre. Audio files, illustrations, photos and videos are credited under the multimedia object, with the exception of promotional images, which usually point to another page containing the media credit. The owner of the rights for the media is the named person or group. Perth is the fastest growing large city compared to the last census. The Great Barrier Reef, the world`s largest barrier reef, stretches 1,600 miles off the northeast coast of Australia. It is home to a variety of marine animals and fish that attract millions of tourists every year. The reef attracts divers and water enthusiasts from all over the world. The reef is a major tourist attraction and brings income to the Australian economy. The Great Barrier Reef has been declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations. Brisbane is located on the Gold Coast, which takes its name from the beautiful sandy beaches.

The beaches attract an important tourist market for the country. Most produce renewable electricityNew Zealand (73%; Hydropower, geothermal, wind, biomass) Island flora and faunaThe development of flora and fauna on the islands of Australia and Oceania is unique. Many plants and animals reached the islands of South Asia during the last ice age, when sea levels were low enough to allow travel. After sea level rise, the species adapted to the environment of each island or island community, producing several species that evolved from a common ancestor. Due to its isolation from the rest of the world, Australia and Oceania have an incredibly high number of endemic species or species found nowhere else on Earth. Plants traveled between islands riding wind or ocean currents. The birds carried the seeds of fruits and plants and spread them with their feces between the islands. Ferns, mosses and some flowering plants depend on spores or seeds that can remain in the air for long periods of time. Coconut trees and mangroves, common in Australia and Oceania, produce seeds that can float on salt water for weeks. Important flowering plants native to Australia and Oceania are jacaranda, hibiscus, pohutukawa and kowhai. Other native trees include the breadfruit tree, eucalyptus and banyan tree. Birds are very common in Australia and Oceania as they are one of the few animals mobile enough to move from island to island.

There are more than 110 species of birds endemic to Australia and Oceania, including many seabirds. Many flightless birds such as emus, kiwis, cassowaries, wekas and takahes are native to Australia, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. The Pacific Islands have more than 25 species of birds of paradise that have colorful plumage. Lizards and bats make up the majority of land animals native to Australia and Oceania. Species of lizards include the Goanna, skink and Bearded Dragon. Australia and Oceania have more than a hundred different types of fruit bats. The few native land animals in Australia and Oceania are unusual.

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